Roles and functions of special drawing rights
They can sustain such a budget deficit because the world depends on the dollar for its day to day functioning.
African and Middle Eastern countries are not participating in the present scheme. For this purpose, however, the present allocative system based on IMF quota is regarded as irrational.
Private holding of SDRs would as a result be both permitted and encouraged. However, there was not enough supply of these internationally to keep sufficient reserves for the IMF to function properly.
Special drawing rights mrunal
So far, however, all deposits have been placed with the BIS. The XDR resurfaced in when many countries were wary of taking on more foreign exchange reserve assets denominated in U. Since the SDR allocations, sales of SDRs have been allocated among most market makers spanning four major geographical regions Figure 4. This suspicion of the dollar precipitated an allocation of 12 billion XDRs over a period of four years. As regards the Fund, no plans exist it the moment to issue SDR-denominated notes to the market, although the legal possibility exists for the Fund to do so with the consent of the members whose currencies it would use as a vehicle. The Executive Board has agreed on two broad criteria covering representativeness and risk characteristics: The financial instruments in the interest rate basket should be broadly representative of the range of financial instruments that are actually available to investors in a particular currency, and the interest rate on the instruments should be responsive to changes in underlying credit conditions in the corresponding money market. Since July 1, , the value of SDRs has been expressed in terms of a standard basket of 16 currencies. The facilities are meant for financing routine expansion of world trade. The Fund has the directing role in designation so that participating countries can get currencies in exchange for their SDRs from member-countries which are in surplus. Their use in the beginning and on priority basis is expected to be confined to those countries which are suffering from the balance of payments difficulties. The SDRs add permanently towards reserves in a way that the conventional or ordinary drawing rights do not. The best way to understand the scheme is to think of the rights as pieces of papers which other countries will accept in payment of debt—that is, paper gold. IMF member countries can borrow SDRs from its reserves at favorable interest rates , mostly to adjust their balance of payments to favorable positions. Thus, the distribution of IMF facilities, to increase international liquidity amongst its members, either in the way of normal entitlements under the quota system or in the form of direct allocation of SDRs, has not been designed to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor countries, who remain far apart from each other as before, if not worse off.
This position had changed in Each participant shared an amount equivalent to What was at one time being proposed amounted to a radical change both in the method of its creation and the manner of its use. As the reconstitution provisions were abrogated inthe XDR now functions less like credit than previously.
Some 14 to 16 international organisations use the SDR as their unit of account. It is true that the scheme of SDRs in its present form and as applicable to developing economies has a good number of limitations, which go to make this scheme, as such for them, of limited value.
In addition, they observe, it has been suggested that the SDR might play a role in controlling the amount of international liquidity.
This should be corrected equitably. All the or more members of the Fund in were participants in the SDRs Department, and all except 5, which joined the Fund after January 1, had received SDRs in allocations.
based on 98 review