History of english language

With them comes a living history that continues to evolve to this day! Late Old English 10th to 11th Century — can be considered the final phase of the Old English language which was brought about by the Norman invasion of England.

History of english language powerpoint

Though closely related to English, German remains far more conservative than English in its retention of a fairly elaborate system of inflections. During the rule of Cnut and other Danish kings in the first half of the 11th century, a kind of diglossia may have come about, with the West Saxon literary language existing alongside the Norse-influenced Midland dialect of English, which could have served as a koine or spoken lingua franca. The Printing Press was key in standardizing the English language through distribution of the English Bible. Increased literacy and travel facilitated the adoption of many foreign words, especially borrowings from Latin and Greek from the time of the Renaissance. From the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around the world. One speaks in English of the Frankfurt Book Fair, but in German one must add the suffix -er to the place-name and put attributive and noun together as a compound , Frankfurter Buchmesse. Where it all started Many of you will be forgiven for thinking that studying an English Language course consists of English grammar more than anything else. The Pilgrim Fathers and subsequent English settlements adopted even more.

In English, only nouns, pronouns as in he, him, hisadjectives as in big, bigger, biggestand verbs are inflected. They spoke the same West Germanic tongue but with different dialects.

Unlike languages that developed within the boundaries of one country or one distinct geographical regionEnglish, since its beginnings 1, or so years ago, evolved by crossing boundaries and through invasions, picking up bits and pieces of other languages along the way and changing with the spread of the language across the globe.

history of english language summary

The advances and discoveries in science and technology during the Industrial Revolution saw a need for new words, phrases, and concepts to describe these ideas and inventions.

Merchants and lower-ranked nobles were often bilingual in Anglo-Norman and English, whilst English continued to be the language of the common people.

History of english language in hindi

English is in a constant state of flux. Early Modern English[ edit ] Main article: Early Modern English English underwent extensive sound changes during the 15th century, while its spelling conventions remained largely constant. Censorship was a given, and after the Parliamentarian victory during the War, Puritans promoted an austere lifestyle in reaction to what they viewed as excesses by the previous regime [7]. Modern English is analytic i. The new conquerors called the Normans brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the ruling and business classes. Contemporary English spelling is a whole new subject requiring a whole new website, but for starters you can look at another website of mine on Canadian, British and American Spelling. The parent tongue, called Proto-Indo-European, was spoken about 5, years ago by nomads believed to have roamed the southeast European plains. The words be, strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. Middle English 1.

The extensive contact between Old English and Old Norse speakers, including the possibility of intermarriage that resulted from the acceptance of Christianity by the Danes in[12] undoubtedly influenced the varieties of those languages spoken in the areas of contact.

Inhowever, a major invasion was launched by what the Anglo-Saxons called the Great Heathen Armywhich eventually brought large parts of northern and eastern England the Danelaw under Scandinavian control.

history of english language pdf

During the invasion, the native Britons were driven north and west into lands we now refer to as Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. This is a personal project not a scholarly work, and I have not provided unimpeachable references to original sources for every point I make, although I have given specific references and credits for all images used.

History of english language timeline

In the other Indo-European languages , apart from rare exceptions in Scandinavian languages , nouns and verbs are never identical because of the necessity of separate noun and verb endings. Many of the phrases we use today were first written by playwright William Shakespeare. You get the idea. Germanic is a branch of the Indo-European language family. Books became cheaper and more people learned to read. In , however, a major invasion was launched by what the Anglo-Saxons called the Great Heathen Army , which eventually brought large parts of northern and eastern England the Danelaw under Scandinavian control. Late Old English 10th to 11th Century — can be considered the final phase of the Old English language which was brought about by the Norman invasion of England. When Danish rule ended, and particularly after the Norman Conquest , the status of the minority Norse language presumably declined relative to that of English, and its remaining speakers assimilated to English in a process involving language shift and language death. But there is also section on Language Issues including How New Words are Created , Language and Geography and English as a Global Language , a Timeline of important dates in the development of English, a Glossary of some of the technical and historical terms used, and a list of Sources and Links. The Printing Press was key in standardizing the English language through distribution of the English Bible. In French one has no choice but to construct a phrase involving the use of two prepositions: Foire du Livre de Francfort. By the time of William Shakespeare mid 16th - early 17th century , [21] the language had become clearly recognizable as Modern English. Old English Merchants and lower-ranked nobles were often bilingual in Anglo-Norman and English, whilst English continued to be the language of the common people.
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The History of English